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Abrasive Blasting: The operation of forcibly propelling a high-pressure stream of abrasive material against a surface in order to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.

Air Decay Leak Testing: A leak testing method where an object is subjected to a measured amount of air and a leak is indicated by the loss of air pressure.

Annealing: Annealing is any heat treatment in which the microstructure, and therefore properties, of a material are altered. Annealing typically refers to heat treatment in which a cold-worked metal is softened by allowing it to recrystallize.

Bead Blasting, Beading and Blasting: The cleaning or finishing of metal objects by high velocity impingement of hard metal shot against the surface.

Blast Cleaning: A process using loose abrasive propelled at high velocity and aimed at the area to be cleaned. This process is typically used to remove flash, rust, scale, old paint or any other dry surface contaminants.

Borescope Inspection: A Borescope is an optical device consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with an eyepiece and an objective lens. Borescopes are used for visual inspection where areas are inaccessible by other means.

Capillary Action: The movement of liquids within the spaces of a porous material due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion and surface tension. It is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and sometimes in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

Castings: A manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting.

CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine): A device for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis of this machine.

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Machining: A control system where numerical values corresponding to desired tool or control positions are generated by a computer. Data is “dialed in” rather than controlled by cams and gears providing precise repeatable machine movements that can be programmed for optimal speeds, feeds and machine cycles.

Deburring: A finishing method to eliminate flaws by grinding or shot blasting the surface of an object.

Discontinuity: An interruption in the normal physical structure or configuration of an object, such as cracks, forging laps, seams, inclusions and porosity.

Dry Vacuum/Pressure (DVP) Impregnation: The most robust impregnation process. This process incorporates dry vacuum, wet vacuum and pressure to impregnate with resin to seal porosity.

Dwell Time (In reference to Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection): The total time that the penetrant or emulsifier is in contact with the test surface, including the time required for application and the drain time.

Ferrous Metals: Alloys containing iron, typically magnetic.

Finishing: The process used to refine or roughen a surface to meet surface finish requirements or to clean, strengthen or prepare the surface for additional processing.

Flash: Excess material on molded component resulting from a leakage at joining surfaces in a casting process.

Fluorescent Penetrant: A testing penetrant that is characterized by its ability to fluoresce when excited by ultraviolet radiation.

Forging: A process where metal is shaped by pressing, pounding or squeezing under very high pressure to form forgings.

Grinding: Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel or grinder as the cutting tool. It is used to finish work pieces that must show high surface quality and high accuracy of shape and dimension.

Heat Treatment: An operation or combination of operations involving heating and cooling of metal or an alloy in a solid state for the purpose of obtaining certain desirable conditions or properties, such as hardening.

Immersion Leak Testing: A leak test method where an object is immersed in a fluid and leak is indicated by the escape of air in the form of bubbles.

Impregnation: The penetration of resin in a porous or absorbent substrate to permanently seal it.

Penetrant Inspection: A water washable penetrant procedure with high fluorescent and low surface tension, drawn into small surface openings by capillary action. Typically it is viewed under black light.

Resin Impregnation Anaerobic: This is a process involving methacrylate sealants with a more sophisticated curing system. Once impregnated into the porosity of the parts, anaerobic sealants will automatically self-cure to a fully polymerized state.

Resin Impregnation Anaerobic: This is a process involving methacrylate sealants with a more sophisticated curing system. Once impregnated into the porosity of the parts, anaerobic sealants will automatically self-cure to a fully polymerized state.

Robot: A piece of equipment with the capability to be programmed to perform quick and accurate operations multiple times.

Shot Peening: The procedure of impacting a metal surface with a high-velocity stream of metal shot or glass beads for cleaning or improving resistance to stress corrosion by producing compressive stress.

Sub-Critical Annealing, Stress Relief Annealing: A heat-treating operation used to relieve or dissipate stresses in weldments, heavily machined parts, castings and forgings. The parts are uniformly heated through and are either air cooled from temperature or slow cooled from temperature depending on the type of part and subsequent finishing or heat-treating operations.

T-5 Heat Treatment: Artificially aged only: Applied to products which are artificially aged after an elevated-temperature rapid cool fabrication process, such as casting or extrusion to improve mechanical properties or dimensional stability, or both.

T-6 Heat Treatment: A specific heat treatment applied to aluminum to increase the strength of the alloy by as much as 30%. The process normally occurs in two phases; Solution Heat Treat and then Artificial Aging.

Tumble Barrels: Machines used to tumble deburr. Often six or eight sided with either horizontal or vertical axis.

Tumble Deburring: An abrasive process that removes sharp edges or burrs and smooths a surface of metal components. It can be done as a wet or dry process.

Vibratory Finishing: A type of mass finishing machine used to deburr, burnish, clean and brighten a large number of small work pieces very quickly.

Water Washable Penetrant: A type of penetrant that contains its own emulsifier, making it water washable.

Web Vacuum (WV) Impregnation: Parts or components are submerged in resin and a vacuum is drawn to remove air from resin and parts. This is the second stage of a Dry Vacuum Process, but can be performed independently.

Wet Vacuum Pressure (WVP) Impregnation: A vacuum is drawn to remove air from resin and parts. The vacuum is then vented and pressure is applied. Pressure cycle is the third stage in the Dry Vacuum Pressure process.